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@RequestBody, @ResponseBody 注解详解

简介:

@RequestBody

作用:

​ i) 该注解用于读取Request请求的body部分数据,使用系统默认配置的HttpMessageConverter进行解析,然后把相应的数据绑定到要返回的对象上;

​ ii) 再把HttpMessageConverter返回的对象数据绑定到 controller中方法的参数上。

A) GET、POST方式提时, 根据request header Content-Type的值来判断:

  • ​ application/x-www-form-urlencoded, 可选(即非必须,因为这种情况的数据@RequestParam, @ModelAttribute也可以处理,当然@RequestBody也能处理);
  • ​ multipart/form-data, 不能处理(即使用@RequestBody不能处理这种格式的数据);
  • ​ 其他格式, 必须(其他格式包括application/json, application/xml等。这些格式的数据,必须使用@RequestBody来处理);

B) PUT方式提交时, 根据request header Content-Type的值来判断:

  • ​ application/x-www-form-urlencoded, 必须;
  • ​ multipart/form-data, 不能处理;
  • ​ 其他格式, 必须;

说明:request的body部分的数据编码格式由header部分的Content-Type指定;

@ResponseBody

作用:

​ 该注解用于将Controller的方法返回的对象,通过适当的HttpMessageConverter转换为指定格式后,写入到Response对象的body数据区。

使用时机:

​ 返回的数据不是html标签的页面,而是其他某种格式的数据时(如json、xml等)使用;

HttpMessageConverter

<span style="font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">
/** 
 * Strategy interface that specifies a converter that can convert from and to HTTP requests and responses. 
 * 
 * @author Arjen Poutsma 
 * @author Juergen Hoeller 
 * @since 3.0 
 */  
public interface HttpMessageConverter<T> {  

    /** 
     * Indicates whether the given class can be read by this converter. 
     * @param clazz the class to test for readability 
     * @param mediaType the media type to read, can be {@code null} if not specified. 
     * Typically the value of a {@code Content-Type} header. 
     * @return {@code true} if readable; {@code false} otherwise 
     */  
    boolean canRead(Class<?> clazz, MediaType mediaType);  

    /** 
     * Indicates whether the given class can be written by this converter. 
     * @param clazz the class to test for writability 
     * @param mediaType the media type to write, can be {@code null} if not specified. 
     * Typically the value of an {@code Accept} header. 
     * @return {@code true} if writable; {@code false} otherwise 
     */  
    boolean canWrite(Class<?> clazz, MediaType mediaType);  

    /** 
     * Return the list of {@link MediaType} objects supported by this converter. 
     * @return the list of supported media types 
     */  
    List<MediaType> getSupportedMediaTypes();  

    /** 
     * Read an object of the given type form the given input message, and returns it. 
     * @param clazz the type of object to return. This type must have previously been passed to the 
     * {@link #canRead canRead} method of this interface, which must have returned {@code true}. 
     * @param inputMessage the HTTP input message to read from 
     * @return the converted object 
     * @throws IOException in case of I/O errors 
     * @throws HttpMessageNotReadableException in case of conversion errors 
     */  
    T read(Class<? extends T> clazz, HttpInputMessage inputMessage)  
            throws IOException, HttpMessageNotReadableException;  

    /** 
     * Write an given object to the given output message. 
     * @param t the object to write to the output message. The type of this object must have previously been 
     * passed to the {@link #canWrite canWrite} method of this interface, which must have returned {@code true}. 
     * @param contentType the content type to use when writing. May be {@code null} to indicate that the 
     * default content type of the converter must be used. If not {@code null}, this media type must have 
     * previously been passed to the {@link #canWrite canWrite} method of this interface, which must have 
     * returned {@code true}. 
     * @param outputMessage the message to write to 
     * @throws IOException in case of I/O errors 
     * @throws HttpMessageNotWritableException in case of conversion errors 
     */  
    void write(T t, MediaType contentType, HttpOutputMessage outputMessage)  
            throws IOException, HttpMessageNotWritableException;  

}  
</span>  

该接口定义了四个方法,分别是读取数据时的 canRead(), read() 和 写入数据时的canWrite(), write()方法。

在使用 标签配置时,默认配置了RequestMappingHandlerAdapter(注意是RequestMappingHandlerAdapter不是AnnotationMethodHandlerAdapter,详情查看Spring 3.1 document “16.14 Configuring Spring MVC”章节),并为他配置了一下默认的HttpMessageConverter:

ByteArrayHttpMessageConverter converts byte arrays.  

StringHttpMessageConverter converts strings.  

ResourceHttpMessageConverter converts to/from org.springframework.core.io.Resource for all media types.  

SourceHttpMessageConverter converts to/from a javax.xml.transform.Source.  

FormHttpMessageConverter converts form data to/from a MultiValueMap<String, String>.  

Jaxb2RootElementHttpMessageConverter converts Java objects to/from XML — added if JAXB2 is present on the classpath.  

MappingJacksonHttpMessageConverter converts to/from JSON — added if Jackson is present on the classpath.  

AtomFeedHttpMessageConverter converts Atom feeds — added if Rome is present on the classpath.  

RssChannelHttpMessageConverter converts RSS feeds — added if Rome is present on the classpath.  
ByteArrayHttpMessageConverter: 负责读取二进制格式的数据和写出二进制格式的数据;

StringHttpMessageConverter:   负责读取字符串格式的数据和写出二进制格式的数据;
ResourceHttpMessageConverter:负责读取资源文件和写出资源文件数据; 

FormHttpMessageConverter:       负责读取form提交的数据(能读取的数据格式为 application/x-www-form-urlencoded,不能读取multipart/form-data格式数据);负责写入application/x-www-from-urlencoded和multipart/form-data格式的数据;



MappingJacksonHttpMessageConverter:  负责读取和写入json格式的数据;



SouceHttpMessageConverter:                   负责读取和写入 xml 中javax.xml.transform.Source定义的数据;

Jaxb2RootElementHttpMessageConverter:  负责读取和写入xml 标签格式的数据;



AtomFeedHttpMessageConverter:              负责读取和写入Atom格式的数据;

RssChannelHttpMessageConverter:           负责读取和写入RSS格式的数据;



当使用@RequestBody和@ResponseBody注解时,RequestMappingHandlerAdapter就使用它们来进行读取或者写入相应格式的数据。

HttpMessageConverter匹配过程:

@RequestBody注解时: 根据Request对象header部分的Content-Type类型,逐一匹配合适的HttpMessageConverter来读取数据;

spring 3.1源代码如下:

<span style="font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">private Object readWithMessageConverters(MethodParameter methodParam, HttpInputMessage inputMessage, Class paramType)  
            throws Exception {  

        MediaType contentType = inputMessage.getHeaders().getContentType();  
        if (contentType == null) {  
            StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder(ClassUtils.getShortName(methodParam.getParameterType()));  
            String paramName = methodParam.getParameterName();  
            if (paramName != null) {  
                builder.append(' ');  
                builder.append(paramName);  
            }  
            throw new HttpMediaTypeNotSupportedException(  
                    "Cannot extract parameter (" + builder.toString() + "): no Content-Type found");  
        }  

        List<MediaType> allSupportedMediaTypes = new ArrayList<MediaType>();  
        if (this.messageConverters != null) {  
            for (HttpMessageConverter<?> messageConverter : this.messageConverters) {  
                allSupportedMediaTypes.addAll(messageConverter.getSupportedMediaTypes());  
                if (messageConverter.canRead(paramType, contentType)) {  
                    if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {  
                        logger.debug("Reading [" + paramType.getName() + "] as \"" + contentType  
                                +"\" using [" + messageConverter + "]");  
                    }  
                    return messageConverter.read(paramType, inputMessage);  
                }  
            }  
        }  
        throw new HttpMediaTypeNotSupportedException(contentType, allSupportedMediaTypes);  
    }</span>  

@ResponseBody注解时: 根据Request对象header部分的Accept属性(逗号分隔),逐一按accept中的类型,去遍历找到能处理的HttpMessageConverter;

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