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Maven常用插件汇总

​ maven本质上是一个插件框架,几乎所有的功能都是通过各种各样的插件来实现的。maven默认会依据项目类型自动把构建时的各阶段(Lifecycle和phase)自动绑定(Lifecycle Mapping)到特定插件(plugin)提供的功能点(goals)上。例如java项目编译阶段(compile),实际上是调用了maven-compiler-plugin插件提供的compile功能点(goal)来实现的。

一、调用插件提供的功能(goal)

  • 方式一:通过生命周期映射的方式,将插件的goal绑定到生命周期中的phase上,然后调用phase。例如:maven-jar-plugin插件提供了一个叫jar的goal,默认会绑定到生命周期的package阶段(phase)。调用mvn package就会自动调用maven-jar-plugin:jar生命周期中所有前置的phase会先自动执行。
package <==> maven-jar-plugin:jar
  • 方式二:直接调用插件的某个功能(goal)。如mvn maven-jar-plugin:jar。maven有一个约定,如果插件的名字叫maven-xxxx-plugin或xxxx-maven-plugin的话。可以直接用mvn xxxx:goal的方式调用其提供的功能。所以前面这个命令就可以简写成:mvn jar:jar这种方式只会执行指定的goal

调用goal完整的命令格式为:

mvn <plugin-prefix>:<goal>
mvn [<plugin-group-id>:]<plugin-artifact-id>[:<plugin-version>]:<goal>

二、常用插件和常用配置

maven-resources-plugin 文件资源配置

<plugin>
    <artifactId>maven-resources-plugin</artifactId>
    <configuration>
        <encoding>UTF-8</encoding>    <!--配置资源文件编码-->
    </configuration>
</plugin>

关于资源的配置,还可以参考:http://www.cnblogs.com/pixy/p/4798089.html

maven-compiler-plugin 编译配置

默认绑定到compile phase。当前版本的maven默认使用jdk1.5,使用更新的java版本必须手动配置。

<plugin>
    <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
    <artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
    <version>2.3.2</version>
    <configuration>
       <source>1.8</source>
       <target>1.8</target>
       <encoding>utf-8</encoding>
       <compilerArgument>-Xlint:none</compilerArgument>
       <compilerArguments>
            <extdirs>libs</extdirs>     <!--使用项目中的jar包-->
       </compilerArguments>
    </configuration>
 </plugin>

maven-surefire-plugin 单元测试

默认绑定到test阶段。

<plugin>
    <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
    <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
    <configuration>
        <testFailureIgnore>true</testFailureIgnore>  <!--测试有失败用例时,是否继续构建-->
     <skipTests>true</skipTests>                  <!--是否跳过测试阶段,方式1-->
      <skip>true</skip>                            <!--是否跳过测试阶段,方式2-->
    </configuration>
</plugin>

运行时指定:

mvn package -DskipTests
mvn package -Dmaven.test.skip=true

mvn package -Dmaven.test.failure.ignore=true

更多的配置可以参考另一篇文件:http://www.cnblogs.com/pixy/p/4718176.html

maven-jar-plugin 打jar包

这个是普通java项目(非java web项目和其他特殊类型的java项目)package阶段默认绑定的插件,能够将编译好的class和资源打成jar包。

  • 常用配置1:打出可以运行的有主类的jar包
<plugin>  
    <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>  
    <artifactId>maven-jar-plugin</artifactId>  
    <version>2.4</version>  
    <configuration>
    <excludes>  <!--打包时要排除的文件-->
        <exclude>agent.properties</exclude>  
    </excludes>
       <archive>  
           <manifest>  
               <addClasspath>true</addClasspath>  
<!--           <classpathPrefix>lib/</classpathPrefix>   -->
               <mainClass>com.demo.HelloWorld</mainClass>  
            </manifest>  
         </archive>  
     </configuration>  
 </plugin> 

maven-assembly-plugin 打包含依赖的全包

<plugin>
        <artifactId>maven-assembly-plugin</artifactId>
        <configuration>
      <appendAssemblyId>false</appendAssemblyId>  
          <descriptorRefs>
            <descriptorRef>jar-with-dependencies</descriptorRef>
          </descriptorRefs>
      <archive>  
               <manifest>  
            <mainClass>com.defonds.RsaEncryptor</mainClass>  
         </manifest>  
      </archive>
        </configuration>
        <executions>  
                <execution>  
                    <id>make-assembly</id>  
                    <phase>package</phase>  
                    <goals>  
                        <goal>assembly</goal>  
                    </goals>  
                </execution>  
        </executions> 
</plugin>

运行mvn assemlby:assembly在target下生成xxxx-with-dependencies.jar

assembly 插件的一个 bug:http://jira.codehaus.org/browse/MASSEMBLY-360,它在对第三方打包时,对于 META-INF 下的 spring.handlers,spring.schemas 等多个同名文件进行了覆盖,遗漏掉了一些版本的 xsd 本地映射。

maven-shade-plugin 打包含依赖的全包且可以配置主类

Über在德语中是”above,over”的意思。Uber-Jar就是包含所有依赖的全包、完整包。

这个插件只有shade:shade一个唯一的goal,绑定到package pahse。

<plugin>              
  <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>  
   <artifactId>maven-shade-plugin</artifactId>   
   <configuration>  
       <transformers>  
         <transformer implementation = "org.apache.maven.plugins.shade.resource.ManifestResourceTransformer">  
             <mainClass>com.xun.pf.sayHello.HelloWorld</mainClass>  
         </transformer>  
       </transformers>  
    <transformer implementation="org.apache.maven.plugins.shade.resource.AppendingTransformer">  
      <resource>META-INF/spring.handlers</resource>  
    </transformer> 
</configuration>  
   <executions>  
       <execution>  
          <phase>package</phase>  
          <goals>  
             <goal>shade</goal>  
          </goals>  
        </execution>  
     </executions>  
</plugin>

这是由于一些包重复引用,打包后的 META-INF 目录多出了一些 *.SF 等文件所致。 解决方法是在configuration节点下加:

<filters>  
  <filter>  
    <artifact>*:*</artifact>  
    <excludes>  
      <exclude>META-INF/*.SF</exclude>  
      <exclude>META-INF/*.DSA</exclude>  
      <exclude>META-INF/*.RSA</exclude>  
    </excludes>  
  </filter>  
</filters>  

ResourceTransformer

如修改配置文件,包含/排除特定文件等

http://maven.apache.org/plugins/maven-shade-plugin/examples/resource-transformers.html#DontIncludeResourceTransformer

maven-shade-plugin插件有个配置属性:createDependencyReducedPom,默认值为true.

注意这个属性,如果你用这个插件来deploy,或者发布到中央仓库

这个属性会缩减你的pom文件,会把你依赖的<dependency>干掉

正确的做法是把这个值改成false

<configuration>  
    <createDependencyReducedPom>false</createDependencyReducedPom>  
</configuration> 

maven-war-plugin 打war包

<plugin>
    <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
    <artifactId>maven-war-plugin</artifactId>
    <version>2.1.1</version>
   <configuration>
        <warName>${project.artifactId}</warName>
        <webResources>
          <resource>     <!--将额外的jar依赖打入war包-->
              <directory>libs/</directory>
              <targetPath>WEB-INF/lib</targetPath>
              <includes>
                  <include>**/*.jar</include>
              </includes>
           </resource>
        </webResources>
        <packagingExcludes>css/**,html/**</packagingExcludes>


    </configuration>
</plugin>

maven-source-plugin 打包源码

生成的源码包名为xxxx-sources.jar。

<plugin>        
     <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
        <artifactId>maven-source-plugin</artifactId>
        <version>2.1.2</version>
        <executions>
          <execution>
            <id>attach-sources</id>
            <phase>verify</phase>
            <goals>
              <goal>jar-no-fork</goal>
            </goals>
          </execution>
        </executions>
</plugin>

maven-exec-plugin 执行程序

直接调用java goal,执行java程序。

mvn exec:java -Dexec.mainClass="com.demo.HelloWorld"

在pom文件中配置

    <plugin>  
                <groupId>org.codehaus.mojo</groupId>  
                <artifactId>exec-maven-plugin</artifactId>  
                <version>1.2.1</version>  
                <executions>  
                    <execution>
                        <phase>test</phase>  
                        <goals>  
                            <goal>java</goal>  
                        </goals>  
                    </execution>  
                </executions>  
                <configuration>  
                    <mainClass>com.demo.config.DocMapper</mainClass>  
                    <arguments>
                        <argument>${project.build.outputDirectory}\doc-path-map.txt</argument>
                        <argument>${basedir}\src</argument>
                        <argument>**/resource/*.java</argument>
                    </arguments>
                </configuration>  
       </plugin>  

maven-dependency-plugin 依赖分析

mvn dependency:copy-dependencies -DoutputDirectory=lib          #导出所有依赖库
mvn dependency:list
mvn dependency:tree
mvn dependency:analyze
<plugin>
   <artifactId>maven-dependency-plugin</artifactId>
   <configuration>
        <outputDirectory>${project.build.directory}/lib</outputDirectory>
        <excludeTransitive>false</excludeTransitive>  <!--是否排除间接依赖的包-->
        <stripVersion>true</stripVersion>  <!--复制的jar文件是否去掉版本信息-->
    </configuration>
  <executions>
    <execution>
          <id>copy-dependencies</id>
          <phase>package</phase>
          <goals>
              <goal>copy-dependencies</goal>
          </goals>
      </execution>
  </executions>
</plugin>

maven-install-plugin 产出安装到maven本地库

默认绑定到install阶段。将生成的构建产出安装到本地库。

goals:

    • install-file 将本地jar包安装到本地仓库
mvn install:install-file -Dfile=classes12_g.jar -DgroupId=com.oracle -DartifactId=oracle -Dversion=10.2.0.2.0 -Dpackaging=jar -DgeneratePom=true

cobertura 测试覆盖率计算

基于jcoverage,原理是对class文件插桩,然后执行测试并生成覆盖率报告。参考资料

Pom.xml文件需要加入配置:

<reporting>
    <outputDirectory>target/site</outputDirectory>
      <plugins>
          <plugin>
              <groupId>org.codehaus.mojo</groupId>
              <artifactId>cobertura-maven-plugin</artifactId>
          </plugin>
      </plugins>  
  </reporting> 

运行 mvn cobertura:cobertura 将会插桩class文件、测试、生成覆盖率报告。

cobertura支持的goal:

  • check Check the Last Instrumentation Results.
  • clean   Clean up rogue files that cobertura maven plugin is tracking.
  • dump-datafile Cobertura Datafile Dump Mojo.
  • instrument Instrument the compiled classes.
  • cobertura Instruments, Tests, and Generates a Cobertura Report.

findbugs 静态java代码检查

基于规则匹配静态检查java代码中存在的问题。参考资料

pom.xml中配置:

<reporting>
    <plugins>
      <plugin>
        <groupId>org.codehaus.mojo</groupId>
        <artifactId>findbugs-maven-plugin</artifactId>
        <version>2.3.1</version>
      </plugin>
    </plugins>
</reporting>

运行 mvn findbugs:findbugs 将开始执行检查,并生成bugs报告(默认在target\site\findbugs目录)。 findbugs:findbugs绑定到compile pahse即在编译时自动检查。

findbugs插件支持的goal:

  • check fail the build if there were any FindBugs violations in the source code. An XML report is put out by defualt in the target directory with the errors
  • findbugs Generates a FindBugs Report when the site plugin is run. The HTML report is generated for site commands only.
  • gui Launch the Findbugs GUI. It will use all the parameters in the POM fle.
  • help Display help information on findbugs-maven-plugin. mvn findbugs:help -Ddetail=true -Dgoal=<goal-name>

maven-idea-plugin 生成IntelliJ IDEA工程文件

IDEA工程文件扩展名为.ipr和.iws

    <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-idea-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>2.2</version>
                <configuration>
                    <jdkName>1.6</jdkName>
                    <jdkLevel>6.0</jdkLevel>
                    <downloadSources>true</downloadSources>
                    <downloadJavadocs>true</downloadJavadocs>
                    <dependenciesAsLibraries>true</dependenciesAsLibraries>
                    <useFullNames>false</useFullNames>
                    <deploymentDescriptorFile>
                        src/main/webapp/WEB-INF/web.xml
                    </deploymentDescriptorFile>
                </configuration>
        </plugin>

maven-jetty-plugin jetty服务器

<plugin>
                <groupId>org.mortbay.jetty</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-jetty-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>6.1.6</version>
                <configuration>
                    <contextPath>/</contextPath>
                    <scanIntervalSeconds>3</scanIntervalSeconds>
                    <scanTargetPatterns>
                        <scanTargetPattern>
                            <directory>src/main/webapp/WEB-INF</directory>
                            <excludes>
                                <exclude>**/*.jsp</exclude>
                            </excludes>
                            <includes>
                                <include>**/*.properties</include>
                                <include>**/*.xml</include>
                            </includes>
                        </scanTargetPattern>
                    </scanTargetPatterns>
                    <requestLog implementation="org.mortbay.jetty.NCSARequestLog">
                        <filename>target/yyyy_mm_dd.request.log</filename>
                        <retainDays>90</retainDays>
                        <append>true</append>
                        <extended>false</extended>
                        <logTimeZone>GMT</logTimeZone>
                    </requestLog>
                    <connectors>
                        <connector implementation="org.mortbay.jetty.nio.SelectChannelConnector">
                            <port>80</port>
                            <maxIdleTime>60000</maxIdleTime>
                        </connector>
                    </connectors>
                </configuration>
            </plugin>

maven-javadoc-plugin 生成java文档

<plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-javadoc-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>2.4</version>
                <executions>
                    <execution>
                        <goals>
                            <goal>javadoc</goal>
                        </goals>
                        <phase>compile</phase>
                    </execution>
                </executions>
                <configuration>
                    <encoding>UTF-8</encoding>
                    <verbose>false</verbose>
                    <show>public</show>
                    <subpackages>com.pwrd.mobileqa.assist.resource</subpackages>
                    <doclet>com.sun.jersey.wadl.resourcedoc.ResourceDoclet</doclet>
                    <docletPath>${path.separator}${project.build.outputDirectory}</docletPath>
                    <docletArtifacts> <!--解析项目生成javadoc需要的依赖-->
                       <docletArtifact>
                           <groupId>xerces</groupId>
                           <artifactId>xercesImpl</artifactId>
                           <version>2.6.1</version>
                       </docletArtifact>
             ......
                    </docletArtifacts>
                    <!--  the following option is required as a work around for
                         version 2.5 of the javadoc plugin which will be used
                         by a maven version > 2.0.9-->
                    <useStandardDocletOptions>false</useStandardDocletOptions>
                    <additionalparam>-output ${project.build.outputDirectory}/resourcedoc.xml</additionalparam>
                </configuration>
            </plugin>

mybatis-generator-maven-plugin 生成mybatis映射

默认会在根目录查找并使用名为mybatis-config.xml的配置文件。

<plugin>
                <groupId>org.mybatis.generator</groupId>
                <artifactId>mybatis-generator-maven-plugin</artifactId>
              <version>1.3.0</version>
              <configuration>
                    <verbose>true</verbose>
                    <overwrite>true</overwrite>
              </configuration>
             <executions>
                <execution>
                  <id>Generate MyBatis Artifacts</id>
                  <goals>
                    <goal>generate</goal>
                  </goals>
                </execution>
              </executions>
            </plugin>
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